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定語從句

[日期:2017/2/7 9:28:00] 閱讀:4879

一、定語從句

1.定語從句三步:第一找出先行詞;第二看先行詞在定語從句中的語法功能(做主語、賓語或狀語);第三選擇合適的關聯詞。

2.定語從句在選擇關聯詞thatwhich時,常常容易出錯,所以應記住什么時候只能用that,什么時候只能用which.

1).只能用 that 的情況歸納4種:即先得詞被序數詞最高級修飾過;先行詞為all everythingnothing等不定代詞;先行詞同時是人和物并列時;最后先行詞分別被the only the very the samethe last 修飾。請看下列四組例句,注意其先行詞:

①.The first thing that we should do is to workout a plan .

②.I t almost seemed as if the good man weretrying to teach us all that he knew at this lesson .

③.Later my father and Mr. Crosset talked forabout half an four of things and persons that they  remembered in school.

④.This is the very dictionary that I want tofind .

2).只用which is 情況有兩種情況:一是非限制性定語從句,關聯詞要用which;二是做介詞賓語時只能用which。請看下列兩組例句:

       I said nothing , which made him moreangry .

       I have the book about which you aretalking .

三、在定語從句的非限制性定語中,which as 是容易混淆的。在很多情況下兩者兼可互換,但在下列情況中不可互換:

       1、通常As 可以放在整句的句首,而which,只能在逗號之后,as 本身含有“正如”,as 在定語從句中既可是主語也可做賓語

As appear from her paper ,she has read widely in Romantic literature.

She is remarkable, as I have told you .

       2 which 在做非限制性定語從句關聯詞時可以無明確先行詞,指前句整個的意思,如:She has married again, which surprises us .

四、在定語從句中,許多人往往分不清all that what, what 實際上只引導名詞性從句,它相當于all that兩個字,例如:

       All that I know is that he has madeup his mind to heave the country for a new place.

  = what I  know is that ……

 

  

定語從句

 

知識要點:

 一、限定性定語從句:

 

種類

先行詞

關聯詞

例句

說明

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(人)在從句中做主語或賓語

 

 

 

在從句中做主語或賓語

 

 

 

who

 

 

 

 

 

which

 

This is the doctor who saved the boy’s life .

這就是救了孩子生命的醫生。

She is the new student whom I want to introduce to you .

她就是我要介紹給你的新學生

Please pass me the book which is lying on the table.

請遞給我擺在桌上的那本書。

The novel which Tom bought is very interesting.

湯姆買的小說很有意思。

Can you lend me the magazine about which you talked yesterday?

你能把昨天談到的那本雜志借給我嗎?

who在從句中做主語

whom在從句中做賓語,口語中who可以代替whom,也可以被省去,但做介詞賓語時只能用whom

 

 

which在從句中做主語。

which充當賓語時可以省去。

 

 

which做介詞賓語不可省

 

 

 

 

種類

先行詞

關聯詞

    

  

 

 

 

 

 

whose

The professor whose daughter teaches you English is Dr. Williams

那位教授是威廉斯他的女兒教你英語。

The professor, the daughter of whom teaches you English is Dr. Williams.

The bike whose brake was damaged has now been repaired.

那輛壞了閘的自行車現在已經修好了。

=The bike the brake of which was damaged has now been repaired 

whose在從句中做定語

指某人的也可以用…of whom代替whose

 

指物時也可以用…of which 代替 whose

 

 

 

 

 

that

The woman that is playing the piano is Miss Zhang.

正在彈鋼琴的那位婦女是小姐。

I’d like to see the films that are just on show.

我想看那些剛上映的電影。

that指人做主語

 

 

that指物做主語

 

種類

先行詞

關聯詞

       

  

 

 

 

all, little muchsome,any every ,no 構成的合成代詞

 

 

 

 

 

that

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

that

 

 

They talked for about an hour of things and  persons that they remember in the school.

他們談起他們所記得起的學校里的人和事,談了大約有半個小時。

I’ll tell you all(that )I know about it .

我要告訴你我所知道這件事的一切情況。

Is there anything (that) I can do for you?

有什么我可以幫助做的事嗎?

I’ve brought everything (that )you need.

我把你需要的東西都拿來了。

 

 

This is the best film that I have seen .

這是我看過的最好的一部電影。

The first place that we’ll visit is Beijing Library.

我們要參觀的第一個地方是北京圖書館

先行詞分別表示人和物,關系代詞要用that,不用whowhich

先行詞表示物,關系代詞用that不用which, 在從句中做賓語可省去 。如果先行詞是人時,關系代詞不受制約,用thatwho (whom)

均可

 

 

先行詞被形容詞最高級或序數詞修飾時定語從句用that引導。

 

 


 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

that

He is the only person that is believable.

他是唯一可靠的人。

John is the very person that she wants to see.

約翰正是她要見的人。

Who is the man that is talking with Tom ?

正在和湯姆談話的人是誰?

Which of the books that you bought is easy to read?

你買的那些書中哪一本容易讀。

先行詞被the only, the very,the same 等修飾時用關系代詞that.

 

 

當主句以whowhich開頭的特殊疑問句時,定語從句要用that

 

 

 

when

He came at a time when we. needed him most.他在我們最需要的時候來了。

We’ll never forget the day when the People’s Republic of China was founded.

我們永遠不會忘記中華人民共和國成立的那一天。

在定語從句中作時間狀語

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

       注:先行詞是time, minute, moment, next tim很少用關系副詞when,可用that但通常省去。

 

地點

where

This is the room where he put up for the night.

這就是他渡過夜晚的那房子。

在定語從句中作地點狀語

原因

理由

why

I know the reason why she studies so well .

我知道她學習好的原因。

在定語從句中作原因狀語

 

2)非限制性定語從句

 

種類

先行詞

關聯詞

    

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

沒有固定的先行詞而是一個句子

 

who

whom

 

 

 

 

 

 

which

 

 

 

which

 

 

 

 

as

George ,who is my classmate, has won a scholarship.

喬治獲得了獎學金,他是我的同學。

Dr. Li , whom I know very well, will come here tomorrow.

李大夫明天將來這兒,我跟他很熟悉。

I gave him a New Year card ,which he enjoyed very much.

我給他一張賀年卡,他很喜歡它。

He studies hard at school when he was young, which leads to his success in his later life .

他年輕時在校學習努力,這導致了他后來生活中的成功。

He gets up early as is always his habit.

他總是早起床,這是他的習慣。

John was admitted into the college, as we had expected.

約翰被大學錄取了,這是我們期待的。

The earth ,as is known to all ,is round.

人人皆知,地球是圓的。

 

who, whom不能省去,也不能用that代替

 

 

 

 

 

 

which指物,不可省去,也不能用that代替

 

 

which作主語指它前面的整個句子,不可用that代替,強調結果。

 

 

 

as指全句,在從句中做主語。

 

 

as指全句意思,在從句中做賓語。

 

 

as引導的定語從句可以放在句首,句中或句末。

 

 

 

 

 

 

This is the same book as I lost yesterday.

這本書與我昨天丟失的那本書一樣。

用于the same as, such as ,asas等結構中。

 

 

3)限制性定語從句與非限制性定語從句的區別

 

 

限制性定語從句

非限制性定語從句

從句與先行詞的關系

從句是先行詞不可缺少的定語,如果省去,主句的意思就會不完整或不明確。

從句只是對先行詞的附加說明,如果省去,主句的意思仍然清楚或完整

 

從句和主句之間不用逗號分開

從句和主句之間通常用逗號分開

指人who (that) whom

指物which (that)

人和物whose

關系代詞在從句中作賓語時可以省去

指人who(作主語)whom(做賓語)

指物which

人和物的whose

關系代詞一般不可省

修飾

從句只修飾一個名詞或代詞

可以修飾一個名詞或代詞也可修飾整個主句

翻譯

定語從句譯在被修飾詞的前面

定語從句通常被譯成另一個獨立的句子

 

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